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The main components of biogas are CH4 and CO2. The high-purity methane gas obtained by separating CO2 from the mixture is called biological natural gas. Biogas can be directly used as an alternative fuel for Petrochemical Natural gas. The development of biogas has become an important direction to increase the supply of natural gas. The increase of human demand for natural gas promotes the development of biological natural gas technology.
Biogas purification of biological natural gas can make high-value use of biogas, effectively reduce the greenhouse effect caused by the emptying of biogas project due to insufficient utilization of biogas, and has the dual benefits of environmental protection and energy.
1. Biogas characteristics
Biogas is a kind of mixed gas. Its composition depends not only on the type and relative content of fermentation raw materials, but also on the different fermentation conditions and fermentation stages. When the biogas anaerobic reactor is in the normal and stable fermentation stage, the volume composition of biogas is roughly: methane (CH4) 50% ~ 75%, carbon dioxide (CO2) 25% ~ 45%, water (H2O, at 20 ~ 40 ℃) 2% ~ 7%, nitrogen (N2) 0 ~ 2%, a small amount of oxygen (O2), and less than 1% hydrogen (H2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S).
Compared with other combustible gases, biogas has the characteristics of good explosion resistance and clean combustion products. At present, biogas is mainly used in power generation, heating and cooking. The CO2 in biogas reduces the energy density and calorific value of biogas and limits the utilization range of biogas. It is necessary to remove CO2, H2S and water vapor in biogas and purify biogas into biological natural gas (bng).
Biological natural gas can be compressed for vehicle fuel (CNG), cogeneration (CHP), integration into natural gas pipeline network, fuel cell and chemical raw materials. The use of biological natural gas in automobiles can not only reduce the air pollution caused by exhaust emissions, but also reduce the net emission of greenhouse gases by 75% ~ 200%. Biological natural gas can be mixed into the existing natural gas pipeline network to reduce the dependence on petrochemical energy.
2. Biogas purification technology
At present, landfill gas purification processes include pressure swing adsorption (PSA), water washing, chemical absorption, membrane separation and selective separation. At present, the more mature and widely used methods in the world are pressure swing adsorption (PSA), chemical absorption (amine purification) and membrane separation.
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